In the beginning was the Word and humans became human only once they developed language. For most of history and pre-history, language was equated with the spoken word and it was impossible to imagine it other than issuing from the breath of a living human presence, with all the nuances of timbre, intonation, facial expression and body language. The invention of writing in its many forms lost something in the translation from oral traditions, but it opened up vast possibilities of communication across endless divides of space and time. It opened unlimited doors to the powers of the imagination, which temporal power or religious dogma could only try to control but with varying levels of success. It gave humans a new sense of themselves and of the world around them, be it the interplay between nature and culture or between the individual and society.
Dr Vaira Vike-Freiberga has published fourteen books and over 200 articles, essays and book chapters, in addition to her extensive speaking engagements. She was well known for her work on psycholinguistics, semiotics and the analysis of the oral literature of her native country, before becoming active in politics. Having left Latvia as a child refugee, she started her schooling in a refugee camp in Germany in 1945, continued it in French Morocco, and pursued higher education in Canada, with a PhD in experimental psychology (1965) from McGill University in Montreal. While Professor of Psychology at the University of Montreal (1965-1998), she emerged as a prominent spokesperson on science policy as well as cultural identity and the political future of the Baltic States.
Dr Vaira Vike-Freiberga returned to her native country in 1998 to head the Latvian Institute. Less than a year later, she was elected President by the Latvian Parliament in 1999 and re-elected in 2003. She played an instrumental role in achieving membership of the European Union and of NATO for Latvia, and she served as a Special Envoy on UN reform.Since the end of her presidency in 2007, she has chaired the European Research Council Review Panel in 2009, was appointed by the European Council as Vice-Chair of the Reflection group on the long-term future of Europe, and chaired the high-level group on freedom and pluralism of the media in the EU (2011-2012). She has been President of the Club de Madrid of democratically elected former Heads of State and Government since 2014.
Dr Vike-Freiberga is a member, board member and patron of thirty-two international organisations, including the World Leadership Alliance, the International Criminal Court Trust Fund for Victims, the European Council on Foreign Relations, the Nizami Ganjavi International Centre, as well as four Academies. She has been awarded thirty-four Orders of Merit (1st class) and nineteen honorary doctorates, as well as many medals, prizes and honours.
Plenary Session, Wednesday 2 July 2014
A popular point of conversation in our community is, ‘What is the future of libraries?’ But what is a more interesting question is, ‘Are we meeting the challenge of the present that puts us in a position of strength in the future?’ Increasingly, libraries today are choosing short-term wins over long-term victories. By making choices that only alleviate immediate pressure, we put ourselves in a weaker position over time. It is imperative that we connect long-term strategy and vision meaningfully to current everyday operations. We need to take into consideration larger national and international initiatives when we make local decisions. In short, we need to consider how a globally networked world and the expectation of fast information flow changes the way we work.
How are we organising and providing access to our collections to enable conversations and inspire innovation? How are we reinvesting in staff to maintain adequate skill levels? How are we reshaping services to meet today’s challenges presented by digital content, a networked world and the changing modes of scholarly communication? How are we increasing the flow of information and decreasing the points of friction in order to facilitate knowledge creation?
This presentation will use the Digital Public Library of America as a case study to illustrate how we are making the shift in thinking about our collections as data. The concept of Open Access and Open Data will be reviewed in relation to cultural heritage collections and how we are transitioning access from a library point of view to one that is less restrictive and allows for more interaction and interpretation outside of the library frame.
Pivoting to a decentered library model fundamentally changes how we present out collections, has implications in regards to organisational strategy, develop new services and how we manage our print and digital collections. It also has impacts on how we view ourselves as professional roles in the knowledge creation process. Cultural heritage organisations and professionals who readily grasp how the networked world transforms how we work, and learn how to leverage the network to their advantage, will be the ones that lead and thrive as we approach the year 2020.
Rachel Frick is Director of the Digital Library Federation Program at the Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR/DLF). The DLF is a membership organisation comprised of over 85 US and Canadian Academic and Research Libraries. The program serves a robust and diverse community of practitioners who advance research, teaching and learning through the application of digital library research, technology and services. DLF serves as a resource and catalyst for collaboration among digital library developers, project managers, and all who are invested in digital library issues. In her role as DLF director, she contributes to many national initiatives, including the Digital Public Library of America as co-chair of the content strategy committee. Before working at CLIR, she was senior program officer for the National Leadership Grants Program for Libraries, at the Institute for Museum and Library Services (IMLS), a US federal funding agency. Her library experience ranges from leading a technical services and digitisation unit at a private liberal arts university to being a regional sales manager for an international serials company, with a variety of library positions in between. She holds an MSLS degree from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and a BA in English Literature from Guilford College, North Carolina.
Plenary Session, Thursday 3 July 2014
There have been times when it seemed that the e-book was almost dead and times when its expansion has seemed almost overwhelming. It hasn’t died and it has not yet taken over publishing. However, there is no doubt that the appearance in the world of books of the e-book has disrupted the entire world of the book from author to reader, via publisher, bookseller, and library.
Authors, for example, are now more independent than ever before, of publishers and agents. Self-publishing is now a relatively straightforward process and a number of agencies have been established to assist the self-publishing author.
Some literary agents are now turning to e-book publishing, perhaps as a way of promoting unknown authors, possibly as a way of beginning to develop vertical integration in their industry.
Publishers are, perhaps understandably, very cautious about the e-book and how it will affect their business. Readers are well aware that the e-book has lower production and distribution costs than the printed book and, not surprisingly, anticipate that e-books will be cheaper than printed books.
Booksellers have been under pressure for some time from the giant of online bookselling, Amazon, and the e-book has intensified that pressure. There are now more bookshops in Japan, for example, than in the whole of the USA and one hears of closure of bookshops in the UK almost every week.
Libraries, ever adaptable, have responded in various ways to the e-book and have a number of problems in coping with them. Problems relating to publishers’ willingness to make them available to libraries; problems with the lack of independent platforms through which they can be made available to readers; problems in academic libraries between the economic imperative underlying the use of e-textbooks and students’ preferences for the printed version; and problems with VAT charges and the terms under which e-books are made available.
Readers divide into three camps: those who prefer the printed book and nothing else; those who prefer the e-book; and those who choose one or the other depending on circumstances. All seem agreed that convenience and portability are the key advantages of the e-book.
My presentation will deal with at least some of these issues in the particular context of the research project, funded by the Swedish Research Council (Vetenskapsrådet) at the University of Borås.
Thomas Daniel Wilson has worked in the information sector since 1951, holding positions in the public sector, industry, colleges and universities. He has been a Visiting Professor at the Universities of Maryland and North Carolina in the USA, at McGill University, Canada, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia and at Tallinn Pedagogical University, Estonia. He was Head of the Department of Information Studies, University of Sheffield, for fifteen years and in 2000 he was awarded the ALISE Professional Contribution Award for his services to education. Following his retirement, he was awarded the title of Professor Emeritus and is now a Visiting Professor at Leeds University Business School and Senior Professor at the Swedish School of Library and Information Science, University of Borås, Sweden. He is Publisher and Editor in Chief of the electronic journal, Information Research. He founded and edited the print journals, Social Science Information Studies and The International Journal of Information Management. He was awarded honorary doctorates by Gothenburg University, Sweden, in 2005 and by the University of Murcia, Spain, in 2010.
Plenary Session, Thursday 3 July 2014
Crowdsourcing has become the mot du jour when it comes to resolving any types of problems, online or offline, that require sustained human involvement. We see it applied in order to motivate employees to engage with less rewarding daily routines, to attract the best possible ideas and approaches to boost innovation, or to complete data processing tasks that computing technology has yet to master quickly and accurately. In this talk we will look at its various forms and flavours, from gamification to human computation and grand challenges, and discuss how it could be used to turn conventional content management applications into social machines in which tasks are performed as optimal combinations of human and computational intelligence. We will analyse the most important building blocks of such systems, as well as design and participation best practices that should guide their development.
Dr Elena Simperl works as a senior lecturer at the Web and Internet Science (WAIS) group at the University of Southampton. Her research interests include knowledge engineering, Social Web technologies, and crowdsourcing. She has contributed and led over fifteen national and European research projects and authored more than 75 scientific publications, and chaired the European Semantic Web Conference in 2011 and 2012. She has initiated several activities targeted at the supervision and guidance of doctoral students and young researchers, including the ESWC Summer School; the Asian Semantic Web School; and the IEEE Summer School on Semantic Computing. She is also co-founder of semsphere GmbH, a professional training company in the same area. She is actively involved in knowledge transfer and innovation management initiatives, including the European Data Forum, which she chaired in 2013.
Plenary Session, Friday 4 July 2014
In recent years, there has been growing interest in the area of open source software (OSS) as an alternative IPR protection model, and as well as presenting alternative economic and licensing possibilities. The success of OSS has had wider implications to many other fields of human endeavour than the mere licensing of computer programmes. There are a growing number of institutions interested in using OSS licensing schemes to distribute scientific data. There appears to be growing concern in the scientific community about the trend to fence and protect scientific research through intellectual property. The OSS experience represents a successful model that demonstrates that IP licenses could eventually be used to protect against the misuse and misappropriation of basic scientific research. Translating existing OSS licenses to protect scientific research has been a positive step towards done this. Some efforts are already paying dividends in areas such as scientific publishing, evidenced by the growing number of Open Access journals and other publications offered through permissive licences such as Creative Commons. However, many new challenges have arisen which are often not addressed by licensing. Subjects such as data mining, database protection, European case law developments, and the always-difficult subject of orphan works, have created new challenges for open science.
This presentation reviews some of the latest developments in the copyright licensing arena, paying special interest to some issues described above. The presentation will highlight the various pitfalls and challenges involved in the open science arena, which may be of interest for research libraries.
Dr Andres Guadamuz is Senior Lecturer in Intellectual Property Law at the University of Sussex, and an Associate Researcher of the CREATe Centre for Copyright and New Business Models in the Creative Economy. He is an international consultant for the World Intellectual Property Organization, and has been involved with Creative Commons in various roles since 2005. His main research areas are open licensing, software protection, digital copyright, and complexity in networks. He has published two books, the most recent is Networks, Complexity and Internet Regulation, with the British publisher Edward Elgar.